Thursday, 8 December 2016


YAKNEHOZ (1858-1927)
            The pen name of Shaye-Nisn Goldberg, he was a prose writer born in the village of Stalbovshtshine (Stralbovshchina), Minsk district.  His family later moved to the nearby town of Mohilev (Mogilev), where he father worked as an elementary school teacher.  Until age ten he studied in religious elementary school, was proficient in Tanakh, wrote poetry in Hebrew, and later studied Talmud with his father.  At age thirteen they moved to the town of Kapulye (Kopyl), and from there his path took him to Nesvizh (Nesvyžius), Uzde (Uzda), and Minsk where he studied in yeshivas.  In Minsk he became acquainted with the writer Sh. L. Tsitron, and under his influence he began to write feature pieces.  In the late 1880s, he moved to Kiev, got to know Sholem-Aleykhem, and published in his Yidishe folks-biblyotek (Jewish people’s library) 1 (1888) a long feature: “Briv fun lite keyn amerike” (Letter from Lithuania to America).  From Sholem-Aleykhem he received his first honorarium—150 rubles (5 kopeks per line), which for that time was an immense sum of money.  He wrote features for other Hebrew and Yiddish publications.  In 1889 he returned to Lithuania and became a teacher of Hebrew in Koidanov.  In 1891 he settled in Minsk, and this became his permanent base.  The October Revolution (1917) completely overturned his life: No one had need of his religious teaching nor his Hebrew pen.  He published a number of Yiddish items in the Minsk newspaper Oktyabr (October) and in Moscow’s Der emes (The truth).  The Byelorussian government supported him with a personal pension.  In his last memoiristic notes, which he began publishing in Oktyabr, he returned to the distant past of his youth.  When the aged writer sought to assess how much he had written and published over the course of his life, it came to roughly 500 stories and novellas, of which some 250 were in Yiddish.  His books include: Dertseylungen (Stories) (Minsk, 1940), 28 pp.

Source: Chaim Beider, Leksikon fun yidishe shrayber in ratn-farband (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers in the Soviet Union), ed. Boris Sandler and Gennady Estraikh (New York: Congress for Jewish Culture, Inc., 2011), pp. 176-77.


GRISHA (GERSHON) YASHUNSKI (b. October 25, 1910)
            The son of Yoysef Yashunski, he was born in Vilna.  He received a secular Jewish upbringing.  He graduated from the Jewish senior high school and later the law faculty of Warsaw University.  Until WWII he was a practicing attorney in Warsaw, at the same time active in the Bund, the student association “Ringen” (Links), and other groups.  When the Germans invaded Poland in 1939, he departed for Vilna where he was coopted unto the Judenrat (Jewish Council) in 1941, had a major influence in Jewish ghetto life, and cooperated with the secret work of the Jewish resistance organization.  At the time of the liquidation of the Vilna ghetto, he was hidden by a Christian on the premises of the city archives.  In the summer of 1944 he moved to Lublin, later becoming a member of the central committee of Jews in liberated Poland and a member of its delegation to the London conference of the World Jewish Congress (August 1945).  He was also a member of the central committee of the revived Bund in Poland and of the Bundist delegation to New York in 1946.  In 1949 he visited New York for a second time—this time as a correspondent for a Warsaw Polish newspaper.  He began writing with music reviews in the Warsaw Bundist Folkstsaytung (People’s newspaper).  After the war he contributed to: Prese-byuletin (Press bulletin) in Lublin (1944-1945); Dos naye lebn (The new life) in Lodz (1945-1948); Naye folkstsaytung (New people’s newspaper) in Warsaw (1946-1948)—all three of which he also coedited.  He translated from Russian and German into Yiddish: Bertold Paul Wiesner, Faryungerung (Rejuvenation [original: Das Problem der Verjüngung]) (Warsaw: Kultur-lige, 1929), 111 pp.; G. G. Stecher, Kumendike doyres, araynfir in oygenik (Coming generations, introduction to hygiene) (Warsaw, 1929), 106 pp.; Anton V. Nemilov, Byologishe tragedye fun der froy (Biological tragedy of women) (Warsaw, 1929), 190 pp.; Stefan von Fodor, Edison, der lebnsveg fun a derfinder ([Thomas Alva] Edison, the life path of an inventor) (Warsaw: Kultur-lige, 1930), 120 pp.; Henry Ford, Mayn lebn un oyftu (My life and work) (Warsaw: Kultur-lige, 1931), 98 pp.—all edited by his father for the series “Kultur un visnshaft” (Culture and science).  He himself wrote and published Mit vos lebt di tekhnik? (How does technology live?) (Warsaw, 1930), 100 pp.  He was last living in Warsaw.  He was a regular contributor to the Polish daily Życie Warszawy (Life of Warsaw).

Sources: Dr. Dvorzhetski (Mark Dvorzetsky), Yerusholaim delite in kamf un umkum (The Jerusalem of Lithuania in struggle and death) (Paris, 1948), see index; Yonas Turkov, In kamf farn lebn (In a struggle for life) (Buenos Aires, 1949), p. 397; Turkov, Nokh der bafrayung, zikhroynes (After liberation, memoirs) (Buenos Aires, 1959), pp. 98, 118, 203; P. Shvarts, in Fun noentn over (New York) 2 (1956), p. 426.
Khayim Leyb Fuks


YANKEV YARMUSH (JARMUSZ) (b. December 24, 1895)
            He was born in Koyl (Kolo), Poland.  He studied in religious elementary school.  He worked in a tailor’s shop in Kalish (Kalisz), and in 1939 emigrated to La Paz, Bolivia.  Over the years 1923-1939, he wrote for Kalisher vokh (Kalisz week) and Kalisher lebn (Kalisz life), later for Di prese (The press) and Ilustrirte literarishe bleter (Illustrated literary leaves) in Buenos Aires, Nayer moment (New moment) in São Paolo, Yontef bleter (Holiday leaves) in Johannesburg, and Meksikaner lebn (Mexican life) in Mexico City), among others.  Over the years 1940-1950, he was Jewish Telegraphic Agency (ITA) correspondent in Bolivia.  He also wrote under the pseudonyms: Av-Yor and Ben-Yankev.

Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), col. 298.


ABEL YARMUSH (JARMUSZ) (1893-August 22, 1969)
            He was born in Koyl (Kolo), Poland.  In 1923 he moved to Kalish (Kalisz) in Galicia.  In 1939 he made his way to Bolivia.  He debuted in print in 1915 in the humorous weekly newspaper, Der frayer foygl (The free bird) in Warsaw.  He wrote humorous sketches, theatrical reviews, and literary articles in: Unzer ekspres (Our express) in Warsaw, the weekly Kalisher lebn (Kalisz life), Kalisher vokh (Kalisz week), Der veg (The way) in Mexico City, Dos yidishe vort (The Jewish word) in Chile, Ilustrirte literarishe bleter (Illustrated literary leaves) in Buenos Aires, Haynt (Today) in Uruguay, and from 1941 he was a regular contributor to Di prese (The press) in Buenos Aires.  In book form: Fun tsey heymen, bilder un felyetonen (From two homes, images and features) (Buenos Aires, 1965), 140 pp.  He died in La Paz, Bolivia

Berl Kagan, comp., Leksikon fun yidish-shraybers (Biographical dictionary of Yiddish writers) (New York, 1986), cols. 297-98.


AVROM YARMOLINSKI (AVRAHM YARMOLINSKY) (January 13, 1890-September 28, 1975)
            He was born in Haysyn, Lithuania (Ukraine?).  He studied in European and American universities and graduated with Ph.D.  For many years he was director of the Slavonic Division of the New York Public Library.  He was lecturer in Russian literature at Columbia University.  He authored works on Russian literature and nationalities issues, among them: Jews and Other Minor Nationalities under the Soviets (New York: Vanguard Press, 1928), 193 pp.  He translated poetry from Russian and German into English.  In Yiddish he wrote: “Di legende vegn eybikn yid” (The legend of the eternal Jew), Tsukunft (Future) in New York (1914), pp. 510-15, 950-54; “A tsushteyer tsum yidishn vort-oytser” (A contribution to the Yiddish treasury of words), Pinkes fun amopteyl fun yivo (Records of the American division of YIVO) (New York) 1 (1929), pp. 70-73; “Tsu der ikonografye fun mizrekh-eyropeishe yidn” (Iconography of Eastern European Jews), Yivo-bleter (Pages from YIVO) (New York) 28 (1946), pp. 254-74; “Ben-ami un drahomaniv” (Ben-Ami and Drahomaniv), Yivo-bleter 34 (1950), pp. 288-91.  He also contributed to the daily Yiddish press.  He died in New York.  His wife was the poet Babette Deutsch.

Sources: Yivo-bleter (New York) (1946), p. 415; Who’s Who in World Jewry (New York, 1955), p. 833.
Khayim Leyb Fuks

Translator’s note. Yarmolinsky published many more books in English not noted in this entry. (JAF)


MICHAŁ JARBLUM (1870s-1922)
            He was the older brother of Mark Yarblum (Marc Jarblum).  He was born in Warsaw, studied in the yeshiva of the Sochaczew rebbe, and he later, through self-study, acquired a well-rounded knowledge of various European languages.  At the end of the nineteenth century, he settled in Lodz.  He was one of the pioneers of political Zionism in Poland.  He contributed to Polish Jewish publications: Izraelita (Israelite), Wschód (East), and Glos zydowski (Jewish voice); and for the German-language Die Welt (The world), as well as other Polish, German, and Russian periodicals in various countries.  He became quite well-known due to his polemic on the Jewish question with Aleksander Świętochowski and Ludwik Krzywicki.  In the last years of his life, he wrote for Lodzer tageblat (Lodz daily newspaper), in which he published articles on general political and Zionist issues.  He took part as a delegate to several Zionist congresses.  He was one of the leaders of the Zionist fraction in the Lodz city council until the end of his life.  He died in Lodz.

Sources: Zalmen Reyzen, Leksikon, vol. 1; written information from his brother, Marc Jarblum in Paris.
Zaynvl Diamant


MARK (MORTKHE) YARBLUM (MARC JARBLUM) (January 24, 1887-February 7, 1972)
            He was born in Warsaw.  He was the younger brother of the Polish Jewish writer Mikhl Yarblum.  He studied in a Russian high school, from which he was expelled in February 1908 for his revolutionary activities.  He was among the founders of the Labor Zionist party in Poland, and he traveled around on missions for the party as an illegal propagandist, appeared in secret labor meetings in the forest, and was arrested during the student strike in Warsaw in 1905.  In April 1906 he was sent by the party illegally to Cracow, where he edited and published the first Labor Zionist newspaper in Poland, Dos yudishe arbayter-vort (The word of Jewish labor), organ of the Częstochowa district committee, and (using the pen names M. Solomon, Mi, and Anyutin) he ran the newspaper practically all by himself.  He also attended to illegally transporting the newspaper to Russian Poland.  The second time he crossed the Polish-German border, he fell into the hands of the Tsarist police, was thrown in prison in Bendin (Będzin), and was then sent back to Warsaw.  In 1907 he departed for Paris to study, and there at the Sorbonne he later graduated from the physics and mathematics as well as the law faculties.  He was active in the French Socialist Party and was in close contact with its leaders, among them: Jean Jaurès, Jean Longet, and others.  He was also active in the Zionist movement in France.  In 1911 he went on a visit to Warsaw, was arrested there, spent several months in jail, and was then dispatched to a secluded village in the Vyatka region of the northeastern Russia.  A year later he escaped from the village and returned to Paris.  During WWI he was active campaigning for labor Zionism among political émigrés from the states engaged in warfare.  At that time he became acquainted with Léon Blum and won his sympathies for Zionism.  Shortly after the revolution in 1917, he traveled back to Russia, wrote a pamphlet in Russian about the socialist international and labor Zionism (published by Leyb Yofe in Moscow in 1917), went on from Moscow to Warsaw where he was editor of the Labor Zionist journal Der yunger yudisher kemfer (The young Jewish fighter) in Warsaw, and was elected as a member of the Warsaw city council, but then soon returned to Paris.  In the 1920s and 1930s in Paris he built a major political and journalistic set of activities.  He was chairman of the federation of Jewish associations in France, which fulfilled the function under his leadership of a community with social and cultural institutions, such as: aid to poor immigrants, help for the sick and for children, a Jewish library with a reading room, evening classes, and the like.  In 1929 he organized the international socialist congress for a laboring land of Israel, in which such socialist leaders as Émile Vandervelde, Léon Blum, and Eduard Bernstein took part.  He edited the newspapers: Unzer vort (Our word), “organ of the united Jewish socialist party, Labor-Zionist Hitaḥdut in France” (issue no. 1 appeared on June 23, 1933); and Di naye tsayt (The new times), “weekly of right Labor Zionism” (twenty-nine issues appeared, beginning on January 17, 1936).  He often published articles Warsaw’s Haynt (Today), New York’s Tog (Day), and Paris’s Parizer haynt (Paris today), among others.  In 1937 he was selected into the central bureau of the united socialist party, Labor-Zionist Hitaḥdut, and at the twentieth Zionist congress he was selected onto the Zionist action committee.  He was a member of Vaad Hapoel Hatsiyoni (Zionist General Council), and over the course of many years he was the representative of Zionist labor (Mapai and Histadrut) in the socialist and trade union international.  During WWII he did a great deal of relief work with Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe.  He continued publishing articles in Parizer haynt.  He was editor of the biweekly newspaper Dos vort (The word) in Paris (twenty-nine issues appeared, first on January 20, 1940).  During the Nazi occupation of Paris, he remained in the unoccupied zone in France, at the head of the illegal Jewish committee.  He was also closely tied with the Jewish aid committee in Nice, and for a time linked to the French and French-Jewish resistance movement.  After November 1942, when the Nazis seized all of France, he lived in hiding—both the Gestapo and the collaborationist Vichy police were looking to arrest him.  Yarblum was sought by the Gestapo right after the Nazis took Paris in June 1940; we know from documents that he was on a list of theirs of ten Jews—including Rothschild, Georges Mandel, and the like—to be arrested.  In the summer of 1943 he was successful rescued into Switzerland where he was the responsible party for the Joint Distribution Committee and the Jewish World Congress, and with their material help he centralized the relief work for Jews in France.  After the liberation of France, he returned to Paris and played an important role in exercising a positive stance among the French representatives at the United Nations on behalf of the creation of a Jewish state.  He became once again active in Jewish life of France, served as chairman of Jewish associations, and was the representative for the Jewish Agency, Histadrut, and Mapai.  He assisted in arrangements for Jewish refugee writers in Paris, as well as aiding their travel to the state of Israel, the United States, and Argentina.  For his patriotism during the war, he received the highest French awards: Knight of the Legion of Honor (Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur) in 1948 and Officer of the Legion of Honor (Officier de la Légion d’Honneur) in 1958.  He edited the Labor Zionist weekly Unzer vort, contributed later to the daily Unzer vort, the monthly Kiem (Existence), and New York’s Tog (Day), and in the Parisian French-language press and the Yiddish and Hebrew newspapers and magazines in the Americas and Israel.  In the summer of 1946 he made a trip through the camps of survivors in Germany, in devastated Poland, and Israel, and he later published the book Its Habitent en Securité (They will live in safety), the title take from Ezekiel 28 (Paris, 1947), 383 pp.  His other books in French include: Le Destin de la Palestine Juive, de la Déclaration Balfour, 1917 au Livre Blanc 1939 (The destiny of Jewish Palestine, from the Balfour Declaration of 1917 to the White Paper of 1939) (Paris, 1939), 78 pp.; Le problème juif dans la théorie et la pratique du communism (The Jewish problem in the theory and practice of Communism) (Paris, 1953), 93 pp.; La lutte des Juifs contre les Nazis (The fight of the Jews against the Nazis) (Paris, 1953), 32 pp.  In English: The Socialist International and Zionism (New York, 1933), 32 pp.  In Yiddish: Der internatsyonaler sotsyalizm in erets-yisroel (International socialism in the land of Israel) (Warsaw, 1929), 32 pp.; Der emes vegn di unterhandlungen mit daytshland (The truth about the negotiations with Germany) (Paris, 1952), 47 pp.; Sovet-rusland un di yidn-frage (Soviet Russia and the Jewish question) (Jerusalem, 1953), 91 pp.  In 1955 Yarblum moved to Israel where he worked for the Zionist General Council of Histadrut.  He published articles in Davar (Word) and Hapoel hatsair (The young worker) in Tel Aviv, and served as correspondent for Yiddish newspapers in Paris, New York, and Argentina.  He died in Bnei Brak, Israel.

Sources: N. Nir-Rafalkes, in Royter pinkes (Warsaw) 2 (1924); Nir-Rafalkes, in Pinkes varshe (Records of Warsaw) (Buenos Aires, 1955), pp. 300-18; Nir-Rafalkes, Ershte yorn (First years) (Tel Aviv, 1960), pp. 114, 129, 132ff; Di vegn fun unzer politik (The pathways of our politics) (Tel Aviv: Poele-Tsiyon-Histadrut, 1938); B. Lande, in Fraye arbeter-shtime (New York) (September 20, 1957); Sefer hapartizanim haivrim (Volume on the Jewish partisans) (Merhavya, 1958), pp. 243, 482.
Zaynvl Diamant